For industrial garments preparation, marker making is a very important chapter for highest usage of fabric and for lowest wastage of fabric.
This is a process which is performed to draw the pattern pieces on the fabric before cutting. This may be done by drawing the pattern pieces on the fabric directly or by drawing the pattern pieces on a thin marker paper and then placement the paper onto the fabric lay. So, we can define the marker as bellow.
Marker is a thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments in such a way that, fabric wastage would be least. The representation or drawing of the arrangement of identified garment pattern relevant to the cutting of a batch material. The marker is placed on the material and provides guideline for cutting. Marker may be on fabric or held in computer data files. Marker width is equal to the minimum fabric width and its length depends on the no of pattern sizes that will be drawn.
Preparations of Marker Making
Before the marker making, some preparatory processes would be followed. The processes are discussed ago (In preparatory processes chapter). Without those, some others preparations are
- Marking Grain Line : Before marker making, the grain line of pattern and fabric must be marked.
- Fabric Measurement : Before marker planning, the fabric must be measured carefully. Because, marker width is relevant to the minimum fabric width.
- Fabric Faults : Fabric faults would be also under consideration. In a fabric roll, where any faults found, that points must be avoided for quality production and to least the fabric wastage.
- Cutting Table : Marker planner should consider the cutting table length before making marker. Marker length must be less than the cutting table length.
Constraints of Marker Making
During marker making, the work of the marker planner is subjected to a number of constraints.
These relate to
i. The nature of the fabric and the desired result in the finished garment.
ii. The requirements of quality in cutting.
iii. The requirements of production planning.
The nature of the fabric and the desired result in the finished garment
- Pattern alignment in relation to the grain of the fabric
Pattern pieces normally carry a grain line. When pattern pieces are laid down the piece of cloth, the grain line should lie parallel to the line of the warp in a woven fabric or the wales in a knitted fabric. Where pattern pieces are laid across the piece, the grain line should lie parallel to the weft or course direction. If the marker planner lays down a pattern outside the stated rules for grain lines, then the finished garment will not hang and drape correctly when worn. This requirement to follow the grain lines restricts the freedom of the marker planner in choosing how to lay the patterns in the marker.
- Symmetry or Asymmetry
Many fabrics can be turned round (through 180.) and retain the same appearance are called symmetrical. They require no special attention during marker making.
Asymmetrical fabrics are those which are turned (through 180.) and do not retain the same appearance. Examples of such fabrics are pile which is brushed in one direction and which show different reflection of light. The marker should be planned in such a way that it is in accordance with symmetry, asymmetry of the fabric. All pattern pieces of a garment should be along the same direction when laid down on a symmetrical fabric.
- Design characteristics of the finished garments
If a vertical stripe does not show a complete mirror image repeat, the right and left sides of a garment may be mirror images of each other. In this case, a pattern should be placed on checks in such a way that the design matches when sewing up. During marker planning, a marker maker must have to think about matching the checks and stripes in a garment. His freedom is restricted here. So I think it¡¦s a constraints for a marker maker.
The Requirements of Quality in Cutting
- For majority of cutting situations where a knife blade is used, the placements of the pattern pieces in the marker must give freedom of knife movement. A blade, which has width, cannot turn a perfect right angle in the middle of pattern piece and space must always be allowed for a knife to turn such corners. The amount of space depends on the actual cutting method employed.
- Pattern count check that the complete menu of pattern has been included.
- Correct labeling of cut garments parts is essential to identify correctly the garment parts for whole garment sizes. It is the responsibility of the marker planner to code every pattern pieces with its sizes as the marker is planned.
The Requirements of Production Planning
When an order placed for a quantity of garments, normally specifies a quantity of each size and colour. If the sewing room requires the cut work urgently, the marker may make two markers.
- Short marker and
- Long marker.
- For long marker, it can be made according to the size proportion and different sizes. This process is very much efficient and takes more time and increased shade variation.
- For short marker and for the particular order two marker can be made, this process is less efficient but takes less time and more production and small cutting table.
- For complex garments long markers generally offer more opportunities for savings than do short ones.
- The more sizes that included in a marker, the greater are the scope for fabric savings.
Greater fabric savings and after lower total cost would normally result, from cutting a stepped lay with paper markers on top.
However, though for greater efficiency, a marker maker needs opportunity to work with freedom, but for maintaining proper quality some criteria must be followed. That is why there are some constraints of marker making.
Methods of Marker Making
There are two methods of marker making.
i. Manual method.
ii. Computerized method.
Here marker is produced in two ways.
- Marker drawn directly on fabric lay.
- Marker drawn on marker paper.
Marker drawn directly on fabric lay
This is the oldest and mostly used method for marker making. In this processes fabric is spreaded on cutting table and setting up all pattern pieces directly on to the fabric. Marking is done by chalk, pencil or pen. In order of this method, needs more time and experience.
Marker drawn on marker paper
In this process marker is made on marker paper. All the pattern pieces are laid on a thin marker paper and dra
wn it. Then the marker paper in placed on fabric lay and used for fabric cutting. Before planning the marker, fabric length and width must be taken under consideration.
Marker directly on fabric Marker on a thin paper
The advantages of computerized method are given bellow comparing with the manual method.
- More suitable for large scale production than the manual method.
- Marker efficiency is higher than manual.
- Least wastage of fabric.
- Low production cost.
- Low labour cost.
- If required, print out of the marker could be got.
- Grading of the pattern could be done automatically.
- Few time consumption.
- Marker can be prepared quickly than manual.
- Initial investment is higher than manual.
- More skilled operator is needed than manual.
However, everything has its positive and negative sides. But in comparison, the advantages of computerized marker are more than the manual. It increases the efficiency, workability and production of the factory. It saves valuable time and leasts fabric wastage. Thus saves money too. Moreover it attracts buyers with its modern facilities.