Complete Textile Glossery (E to F)
Learn Apparel Merchandising, Learn Fashion design.E
EASE-OF-CARE: A term used to characterize fabrics that, after laundering, can be restored to
their original appearance with a minimum of ironing or other treatment. An ease-of-care fabric
generally wrinkles only slightly upon laundering. (Also see DURABLE PRESS and WASHAND-
EASY-CARE: See EASE-OF-CARE.
EDGE CRIMPING: See TEXTURING, Edge Crimping Method.
EDGE ROLL: The curl that develops on the edge of a single-knit fabric preventing it from lying
ELASTICITY: The ability of a strained material to recover its original size and shape
immediately after removal of the stress that causes deformation.
ELASTICIZED FABRIC: A fabric that contains elastic threads. Such fabrics are used for
girdles, garters, and similar items.
ELASTIC LIMIT: In strength and stretch testing, the load below which the specimen shows
elasticity and above which it shows permanent deformation. (Also see YIELD POINT.)
ELASTIC RECOVERY: The degree to which fibers, yarn, or cord returns to its original size
and shape after deformation from stress.
ELASTOMERS: Synthetic polymers having properties of natural rubber such as high
stretchability and recovery.
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY: 1. A measure of the ease of transporting electric charge
from one point to another in an electric field. 2. The reciprocal of resistivity.
ELECTRICAL FINISH: A finish designed to increase or maintain electrical resistivity of a
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY: The resistance of longitudinal electrical flow through a
uniform rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area.
ELMENDORF TEAR TESTER: A tester designer to determine the tearing strength of paper. It
is also used to measure the tearing strength of very lightweight fabrics and resin-finished apparel
fabrics. A trapezoidal fabric sample is employed.
ELONGATION: The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force. Elongation
is measured in units of length (e.g., millimeters, inches) or calculated as a percentage of the
original specimen length. Elongation may be measured at any specified load or at the breaking
ELONGATION AT BREAK: The increase in length when the last component of the specimen
EMBOSSING: A calendering process for producing raised or projected figures or designs in
relief on fabric surfaces. Embossed surfaces are usually produced on fabrics by engraved, heated
rollers that give a raised effect. Embossed velvet or plush is made by shearing the pile to
different levels or by pressing part of the pile flat.
EMBROIDERY: Ornamental designs worked on a fabric with threads. Embroidery may be
done either by hand or by machine.
EMULSION: A suspension of finely divided liquid droplets in a second liquid, i.e., oil in water
EMULSION POLYMERIZATION: A three-phase reaction system consisting of monomer, an
aqueous phase containing the initiator, and colloidal particles of polymer. Polymerization takes
place in the colloidal phase. The process enables the production of very high molecular weights
at increased polymerization rates. Only applicable to addition polymers.
EMULSION SPINNING: The process of spinning synthetic polymers in dispersion form, then
heating to coalesce the dispersed particles. Normally a matrix polymer provides support until
coalescence is completed.
END: 1. An individual warp yarn. A warp is composed of a number of ends. 2. An individual
sliver, slubbing, roving, yarn, thread, or cord. 3. A short length or remnant of fabric.
END OUT: A void caused by a missing warp yarn.
ENERGY ABSORPTION: The energy required to break or elongate a fiber to a certain point.
ENERGY-TO-BREAK: The total energy required to rupture a yarn or cord.
ENTANGLED YARNS: See COMPACTED YARNS.
ENTANGLING: 1. A method of forming a fabric by wrapping and knotting fibers in a web
about each other, by mechanical means, or by the use of jets of pressurized water, so as to bond
the fibers. (Also see HYDROENTANGLING and SPUNLACED FABRIC.) 2. See
ENTERING: The process of threading each warp yarn on a loom beam through a separate drop
wire, heddle, and reed space in preparation for weaving. This process may be done by hand or by
EPITROPIC FIBERS: Fibers with an altered surface property, e.g., electrically conducting,
EPOXY RESIN: In textiles, a compound used in durable-press applications for white fabrics. It
provides chlorine resistance but causes loss of tensile strength.
EQUIVALENT SINGLE YARN NUMBER: See YARN NUMBER, EQUIVALET SINGLE.
EROSION CONTROL FABRICS: See GEOTEXTILES.
ESTERIFICATION: The chemical process of combining an acid and an alcohol to form an
ester. Cellulose acetate is an ester formed by the reaction of acetic acid and the hydroxyl groups
of cellulose. Polyethylene terephthalate, the most common fiber-forming polyester, is a product
of esterification of teraphthalic acid with ethylene glycol.
ESTER INTERCHANGE: See TRANSESTERIFICATION.
ESTHETICS: See AESTHETICS.
ETCHING: See PRINTING, Burn-Out Printing.
ETHYLENE: A petroleum derivative (C2H4) that is the raw material for polyethylene.
ETHYLENE GLYCOL: A viscous, sweet, colorless liquid, (CH2OHCH2OH). Principal uses
are as an intermediate in the manufacture of polyester fibers and as automobile antifreeze.
EVENNESS TESTING: Determination of the variation in weight per unit length and thickness
of yarns or fibers aggregates such as roving, sliver, or top.
EXCESSIVE CLEARER WASTE: A higher that normal amount of short and regular fibers that
become attached to the drafting rolls and are transferred to the clearer brushes to accumulate in
abnormal amounts until they are removed manually.
EXHAUSTION: During wet processing, the ratio at any time between the amount of dye or
substance taken up by the substrate and the amount originally available.
EXTENDED LENGTH: The length of a face pile yarn required to produce one inch of tufted
EXTENSIBILITY: The ability of a materiel to undergo elongation on the application of force.
EXTRACTABLES: The material that can be removed from textiles by means of a solvent (in
EXTRACTION: Removal of one substance from another, often accomplished by means of a
EXTRACT PRINTING: See PRINTING, Discharge Printing.
EXTRUDER: 1. Generally a machine in which molten or semisoft materials are forced under
pressure through a die to form continuous tubes, sheets, or fibers. It may consist of a barrel,
heating elements, a screw, ram or plunger, and a die through which the material is pushed to give
it shape. 2. In fiber manufacture the machine that feeds molten polymer to an extrusion manifold
or that first melts the polymer in a uniform manner then feeds it to a manifold and associateD
equipment for extrusion. (Also see SCREW MELTER.)
EXTRUSION: See SPINNING, 2.
EYELET: 1. A series of small holes made to receive a string or tape. A buttonhole stitch is
worked around the holes. 2. A type of yarn guide used on a creel. 3. A fabric style with areas of
cut-outs surrounded by stitching.
FABRIC: A planar textile structure produces by interlacing yarns, fibers, or filaments.
FABRIC CONSTRUCTION: The details of structure of fabric. Includes such information as
style, width, type of knit of weave, threads per inch in warp and fill, and weight of goods.
FABRIC CRIMP: The angulation induced between a yarn and
woven fabric via the weaving or braiding process.
FABRIC CRIMP ANGLE: The maximum acute angle of a single
weaving yarn’s direction measured from a plane parallel to the
FABRIC SETT: The number of warp threads per inch, or other convenient unit.
FABRIC STABILIZER: Resin or latex treatment for scrims used in coated fabric manufacture
to stabilize the scrim for further processing.
FACE: The correct or better-looking side of a fabric.
FACING: A lining or trim that protects the edges of a garment especially at collars, cuffs, and
FACONNÉ: A broad term for fabrics with a fancy-type weave made on a Jacquard or dobby
FADE-OMETER®: Laboratory device used to determine the fastness of a colored fabric to
exposure to light. The test pieces are rotated around a light source simulating the sun’s rays at
45° N latitude in July between the hours of 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. Fabrics are rated by visual
comparison with a gray scale according to degree of fading.
FAILLE: A soft, slightly glossy woven fabric made of silk, rayon, cotton, wool, or manufactured
fibers or combinations of these fibers and having a light, flat cross
grain rib or cord made by using
heavier yarns in the filling than in the warp.
FALSE-TWISTING: See TEXTURING, False-Twist Method.
FANCY YARN: See NOVELTY YARN.
FASCIATED YARN: Yarns consisting of a core of discontinuous fibers with little or no twist
and surface fibers wrapped around the core bundle.
FASHIONING: The process of shaping a fabric during knitting by increasing or decreasing the
number of needles in action. Fashioning is used in manufacturing hosiery, underwear, and
FASTNESS: See COLORFASTNESS.
FATIGUE: Refers to the resistance of a material to weakening or failure during alternate
tension-compression cycles, i.e., in stretch yarns, the loss of ability to recover after having been
FELL: 1. The end of a piece of fabric that is woven last. 2. In weaving, the last filling pick laid
in the fabric at any time.
FELT: 1. A nonwoven sheet of matted material of wool, hair, or fur, sometimes in combination
with certain manufactured fibers, made by a combination of mechanical and chemical action,
pressure, moisture, and heat. 2. A woven fabric generally made from wool, but occasionally from
cotton or certain manufactured fibers, that is heavily shrunk and fulled, making it almost
impossible to distinguish the weave.
FELTING: 1. The process of exposing wool fibers alone or in combination with other fibers to
mechanical and chemical action, pressure, moisture, and heat so that they tangle, shrink, and mat
to form a compact material. Felting is generally carried out in a fulling mill. (Also see
FULLING.) 2. See NEEDLEPUNCHING and NEEDLED FABRIC.
FESTOON DRYER: A dryer in which cloth is suspended
in loops over a series of supporting horizontal poles and
carried through the heated chamber in this configuration.
FIBER: A unit of matter, either natural or manufactured,
that forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile
structures. A fiber is characterized by having a length at
least 100 times its diameter or width. The term refers to
units that can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by
various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential
requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility,
cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness,
uniformity, durability, and luster. (Also see MANUFACTURED FIBER and NATURAL
FIBER ARCHITECTURE: The spatial arrangement of fibers in the preform. Each architecture
has a definite repeating unit.
FIBER DISTRIBUTION: In a web, the orientation (random or parallel) of fibers and the
uniformity of their arrangement.
FIBERFILL: Manufactured fibers that have been specially engineered for use as filling material
for pillows, mattress pads, comforters, sleeping bags, quilted outerwear, etc. Polyester fibers are
FIBER MIGRATION: See MIGRATION, 2.
FIBER NUMBER: The linear density of a fiber expressed in units such as denier or tex. (Also
FIBER PLACEMENT: In general, refers to how the piles are laid into their orientation, i.e., by
hand, by a textile process, by a tape layer, or by a filament winder. Tolerances and angles are
specified. Microprocessor-controlled placement that gives precise control of each axis of motion
permits more intricate winding patterns than are possible with conventional winding and is used
to make composites that are more complex that usual filament-wound structures.
FIBER-REACTIVE DYES: See DYES.
FIBRETS: Very short (<1mm), fine (diameter <50ì) fibrillated fibers that are highly branched
and irregular resulting in very high surface area. Fibrets can be produced from a number of
substances including acetate, polyester, nylon, and polyolefins. By selection of polymer type and
incorporation of additives, they can be engineered to meet a range of specialized requirements.
FIBRIDS: Short, irregular fibrous products, made by mixing a dilute polymer solution with a
nonsolvent with agitation. They can also be made by flash spinning and breaking up the resulting
filaments. Used in felts, in papermaking, for filtration product, etc. (Also see FIBRETS.)
FIBRIL: A tiny threadlike element of a synthetic or natural fiber.
FIBRILLATED-FILM YARN: See SLIT-FILM YARN.
FIBRILLATION: The act or process of forming fibrils. The act of breaking up a fiber, plastic
sheet, or similar material into the minute fibrous elements from which the main structure is
FILAMENT: A fiber of an indefinite or extreme length such as found naturally in silk.
Manufactured fibers are extruded into filaments that are converted into filament yarn, staple, or
FILAMENT COUNT: The number of individual filaments that make up a thread or yarn.
FILAMENT NUMBER: The linear density of a filament expressed in units such as denier or
tex. (Also see FINENESS.)
FILAMENT WINDING: In the fabrication of composites, the process of placing reinforcing
fibers over a rotating form, (mandrel) to make the product shape. Prepreg fibers or dry fibers that
are treated in a resin bath immediately prior to winding may be used. The wound form can be
cured or consolidated after the fiber winding is complete to product specifications.
FILAMENT YARN: A yarn composed of continuous filaments assembled with or without twist.
FILLER: A nonfibrous material added to a fabric to increase its weight or to modify its
rance or hand. Also referred to as back-sizing. Examples of fillers are insoluble clays or
gypsum, starches, and gums.
FILLET: A long, narrow strip of wire card clothing with which the doffer and cylinder of the
card are spirally wrapped.
FILLING: In a woven fabric, the yarn running from selvage to selvage at right angles to the
warp. Each crosswise length is called a pick. In the weaving process, the filling yarn is carried
by the shuttle or other type of yarn carrier.
FILLING BAND: See MIXED END or FILLING.
FILLING BARRÉ: See BARRÉ.
FILLING SKEWNESS: See SKEWNESS.
FILLING SNARL: See SNARL.
FILM YARN: See SLIT-FILM YARN.
FILTER AID: A powder added to a solution to be filtered that forms a porous bed to improve
FILTER CLOTH: Any cloth used for filtering purposed. Nylon, polyester, vinyon, PBI, and
glass fibers are often used in such fabrics because they are not affected by most chemicals.
FILTER FABRICS: See GEOTEXTILES and FILTER CLOTH.
FINDINGS: 1. Miscellaneous items attached to garments and shoes during manufacture.
Included are buttons, hooks, snaps, and ornaments. 2. Miscellaneous fabrics in garments such a
zipper tapes, linings, pockets, waistbands, and facings.
FINE END: 1. A warp yarn of smaller diameter than that normally used in the fabric. 2. A term
for a defect in silk warp yarn consisting of thin places that occur when all the filaments required
to make up the full ply are not present. This condition is generally caused by poor reeling.
FINENESS: 1. A relative measure of fiber size expressed in denier or tex for manufactured
fibers. For cotton, fineness is expressed as the mea
n fiber weight in micrograms per inch. For
wool, fineness is the mean fiber width or mean fiber diameter expressed in microns (to the nearest
0.001-millimeter). 2. For yarn fineness, see YARN NUMBER. 3. For fineness of knit fabrics,
FINES: Particles or dust of polymer formed during the process of cutting to produce chip.
FINE STRUCTURE: Orientation, crystallinity, and molecular morphology of polymers,
including fiber-forming polymers.
FINGER MARK: A defect of woven fabrics that is seen as an irregular spot showing variation
in picks per inch for a limited width. Causes are spreading of warp ends while the loom is in
motion and pressure on the fabric between the reed and take-up drum.
FINISH: 1. A substance or mixture of substances added to textile materials to impart desired
properties. 2. A process, physical or chemical, performed on textile materials to produce a
desired effect. 3. A property, such as smoothness, drape, luster, water repellency, flame
retardancy, or crease resistance that is produced by 1 and/or 2 above. 4. The state of a textile
material as it leaves a process. (Also see FINISHING.)
FINISH COMPOSITION (YARD): Physical and chemical analysis of the lubricant applied to
yarns to reduce friction and improve processibility.
FINISHED FABRIC: Fabric that is ready for the market, having passed through the necessary
FINISHING: All the processes through which fabric is passed after bleaching, dyeing, or
printing in preparation for the market or use. Finishing includes such operations as heat-setting,
napping, embossing, pressing, calendering, and the application of chemicals that change the
character of the fabric. The term finishing is also sometimes used to refer collectively to all
processing operations above, including bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.
FINISHING BAR: A noticeable streak across the entire width of a f
abric, usually caused by
machine stoppage during processing.
FINISHING SPOT: A discolored area on a fabric caused by foreign material such as dirt,
FINISH TURNS: The actual degree of twist in the final
FIRE-BLOCKING LAYER: A fabric layer composed of
fibers with flame-retardant properties used in aircraft seat
cushions and other upholstery constructions to decrease the
overall flammability of the total construction by preventing
access of flame to the body of the construction.
FIRST-ORDER TRANSITION TEMPERATURE: The temperature at which a polymer
FIRST QUALITY: See YARN QUALITY.
FISSURE: A very minute crack or opening in a material that frequently leads to the breaking or
FIXATION: The process of setting a dye after dyeing of printing, usually by steaming or other
FLAKE: As used by Celanese, a term that refers to the granular form in which cellulose acetate
and triacetate polymers exist prior to dissolving or feeding into the extrusion or molding unit.
FLAKE YARN: Yarn in which roving or short, soft staple fibers are inserted at intervals
between long filament binder yarns.
FLAKY WEB: A web at the card that shows thick and thin places, approximately 1 to 6 square
inches in size. This indicates that, instead of a free flow of fibers through the card, either an
uneven amount has been fed into the card, or groups of fibers have hesitated in the card and then
dropped back into production.
FLAME RESISTANCE TESTS: See FLAMMABILITY TESTS.
FLAME RESISTANT: A term used to describe a material that burns slowly or is selfextinguishing
after removal of an external source of ignition. A fabric or yarn can be flame
resistance because of the innate properties of the fiber, the twist level of the yarn, the fabric
construction, or the presence of flame retardants, or because of a combination of these factors.
(Also see FLAME-RETARDANT and INHERENT FLAME RESISTANCE.)
FLAME RETARDANT: A chemical compound that can be incorporated into a textile fiber
during manufacture or applied to a fiber, fabric, or other textile item during processing or use to
reduce its flammability. (Also see FLAME RESISTANT.)
FLAMMABILITY TESTS: Many procedures have been developed for assessing the flame
resistance of textiles. The most common currently in use are detailed below:
Diagonal (45°) Flame Test: In this test for flame resistance, a
specimen is mounted at a 45° angle and exposed to an open flame
for a specific time. This test measures the ease of ignition and rate
of burning of the samples.
Horizontal Flame Test: A test for flame resistance in which a
specimen is mounted in a horizontal holder and exposed to an open
flame for a specific time to measure burning rate and char-hole
Methenamine Pill Test: A test for the flame resistance of carpets or
rugs in which a methenamine tablet is ignited on a test sample under
controlled conditions and the size of the burn hole is measured.
Mushroom Apparel Flammability Test: This test method involves
igniting a cylinder of fabric around a core containing heat sensors and
measuring the rate of heat transfer from the burning material to the
Radiant Panel Test: A test for the flammability of carpets or rugs in which the specimen is
mounted on the floor of the test chamber and exposed
to intense radiant heat from above. The
rate of flame spread is assessed.
Smoke Chamber Test: This method assesses the smoke generating characteristics of a sample
due to pyrolysis and combustion by measuring the attenuation of a light beam by smoke
accumulating in a closed chamber under controlled conditions. Results are expressed in terms of
specific optical density.
Tablet Test: See FLAMMABILITY TESTS, Methenamine Pill Test.
Thermo-Man: This instrumented mannequin system, interfaced with a computer, allows full
scale testing of garments for protection capability or degree of flammability. The system was
developed by Accurex Corporation for the U.S. Air Force.
Tunnel Test: Test for the flammability of floor coverings in which a sample is placed on the
ceiling of a tunnel of specific dimensions and ignited under controlled conditions to determine the
extent to which it will burn. (Also called Steiner Tunnel Test.)
Vertical Flame Test: A test for flame resistance in which a specimen is mounted in a vertical
holder and exposed to an open flame for a specific time. The open flame is then extinguished and
continued flaming time and char length of the sample are measured.
FLANGE CRIMPING: Simultaneous crimping of two ends of yarn by using heated snubber
pins, then combining both ends on a draw roll after they contact a rubber flange on the draw roll.
FLANNEL: Mediumweight plain- or twill-weave, slightly napped fabric, usually of wool or
cotton, but may be made of other fibers.
FLAPPER: The movable side of a fiber-crimping chamber that periodically opens or flaps to
permit crimped fiber to be expelled from the chamber.
FLASH AGEING: A process for rapid reduction and fixation of vat dyes obtained when the
printed fabric is padded with caustic soda and sodium hydrosulfite and immediately steamed in
FLASH SPINNING: See SPINNING, 5.
FLAT: In carding, one of the parts forming an endless c
hain that partially surrounds the upper
portion of the cylinder and gives the name to a revolving flat card. Flats are made of cast iron, Tshaped
in section, about 1 inch wide, and as long as the width of the cylinder. One side of the flat
is nearly covered with fine card clothing, and the flats are set close to the teeth of the cylinder so
as to work point against point. A chain of flats contains approximately 110 flats and operates at a
surface speed of about 3 inches per minute.
FLAT ABRASION TESTER: See STOLL-QUARTERMASTER UNIVERSAL WEAR
FLAT CARD: The type of card used for cotton fibers and for cotton-system processing. It is
named for the flat wire brushes called flats that are assembled on an endless chain that partially
surrounds the main cylinder. The staple is worked between the flats and cylinder, transferred to a
doffer roll, and peeled off as a web that is condensed into a sliver. (Also see FLAT.)
FLAT-KNIT FABRIC: 1. A fabric made on a flat-knitting machine, as distinguished from
tubular fabrics made on a circular-knitting machine. While tricot and milanese warp-knit fabrics
(non-run) are knit in flat form, the trade uses the term flat-knit fabric to refer to weft-knits fabrics
made on a flat machine, rather than warp-knit fabrics. 2. A term used in the underwear trade for
plain stitch fabrics made on a circular-knitting machine. These fabrics have a flat surface and are
often called flat-knit fabrics to differentiate them from ribbed-knit or Swiss rib fabrics. In this
case, the term refers to the texture, not the type of machine on which the fabric was knit.
FLAT KNITTING: See KNITTING.
FLAT-KNITTING MACHINE: A weft-knitting machine with needles arranged in a straight
line in a flat plate called the bed. The yarn travels alternately back and forth, and the fabric may
be shaped or varied in width, as desired, during the knitting process. Lengthwise edges are
selvages. Flat-knitting machines may be divided into two types: latch-needle machines for
sweaters, scarves, and similar articles and fine spring-needle machines for full-fashioned hosiery.
FLATSPOTTING: A characteristic of certain tire cords. It occurs with all materials but is more
noticeable with nylon cord and is associated with nylon cord by users. Nylon exerts a shrinkage
force as it becomes heated in tire operation. When the tire is stopped under load, the cord in the
road-contact portion of the tire is under less tension than that in other portions of the tire, and it
shrinks to conform to the flat surface of the road. When cooled in this position, the cord
maintains the flat spot until it again reaches its glass transition temperature in use.
FLAT-TOP CARD: See FLAT CARD.
FLAX: The plant from which the cellulosic fiber linen is obtained.
FLEECE FABRIC: A fabric with a thick, heavy surface resembling sheep’s wool. It may be a
pile or napped fabric of either woven or knit construction.
FLEX ABRASION TESTER: See STOLL-QUARTERMASTER UNIVERSAL WEAR
FLEXIBILITY: 1. The ability to be flexed or bowed repeatedly without rupturing. 2. A term
relating to the hand of fabric, referring to ease of bending and ranging from pliable (high) to stiff
FLEXURAL FATIGUE: A physical property expressed by the number of times a material can
be bent on itself through a prescribed angle before it ruptures or loses its ability to recover.
FLEXURAL RIGIDITY: This measure of a material’s resistance to bending is calculated by
multiplying the material’s weight per unit area by the cube of its bending length.
FLOAT: 1. The portion of a warp or filling yarn that extends over two or more adjacent filling
picks or warp ends in weaving for the purpose of forming certain designs. 2. In a knit fabric, a
portion of yarn that extends for some length without being knitted in. 3. A fabric defect
consisting of an end lying or floating on the cloth surface instead of being woven in properly.
Floats are usually caused by slubs, knot-tails, knots, or fly waste, or sometimes by ends being
drawn in heddle eyes incorrectly or being twisted around heddle wires.
FLOATING ENDS: See FLOAT, 3.
FLOAT STITCH: See MISS-STITCH.
FLOCCULATING: Coagulating or coalescing a material into a small, loosely aggregated mass.
FLOCK: The material obtained by reducing textile fibers to fragments by cutting or grinding.
There are two main types: precision cut flock, where all fiber lengths are approximately equal,
and random cut flock, where the fibers are ground or chopped to produce a broad range of
FLOCKING: A method of cloth ornamentation in which adhesive is printed or coated on a
fabric, and finely chopped fibers are applied all over by means of dusting, air-blasting, or
electrostatic attraction. In flock printing, the fibers adhere only to the printed areas and are
removed from the unprinted areas by mechanical action.
FLUFFING: A term describing the appearance of a carpet after loose fiber fragments left during
manufacture have worked their way to the surface. Fluffing is not a defect; it is simply a
characteristic of new carpets that disappears with vacuuming.
FLUORESCENCE: Emission of electromagnetic radiation, usually as visible light, that is
caused by the flow of energy into the emitting body. The emission ceases abruptly when the
FLY: The short, waste fibers that are released into the air in textile processing operations such as
picking, carding, spinning, and weaving.
FLYER: 1. A device used to insert twist into slubbing, roving, or yarn,
and to serve as a guide for winding it onto a bobbin. The flyer is shaped
like an inverted U that fits on the top of the spindle and revolves with it.
One arm of the U is solid and the other is hollow. The yarn enters through
the top of the hollow arm, travels downward, and emerges at the bottom
where it is wound around a presser finger onto the take-up package. 2. See
FLYER SPINNING: A method of spinning by means of a driven flyer. It
is used primarily for spinning worsted and coarser yarns. (Also see
FLYER SPINNING FRAME: See SPINNING FRAME.
FLYER WASTE: During the roving operation, flyer waste refers to fibers that free themselves
by centrifugal force from the regular bulk of roving and accumulate on the flyers and adjacent
FLY FRAME: See ROVING FRAME.
FOAM: Dispersion of gas in a liquid or solid. The gas bubbles may be any size. The term
covers a wide range of useful products such as insulating foam, cushions, etc. It also describes
the undesirable froth in polymer melts, dyebaths, etc.
FOLDED SELVAGE: A curled selvage.
FOLDED YARN: See PLIED YARN.
FOREIGN WASTE: Thread waste or lint that is twisted in the yarn or woven in the fabric. If
such foreign matter is of a different fiber, it may dye differently and thus show plainly.
FORMALDEYDE: A one-carbon aldehyde, (CH2O), it is a colorless, pungent gas at room
temperature. This compound is used primarily for disinfectant and preservative and in
synthesizing other compounds and resins.
FORMED FABRIC: See NONWOVEN FABRIC.
FOULARD: A lightweight, lustrous 2/2 twill that is usually printed with small figures on a solid
background, foulard is frequently used in men’s ties. Foulards are made of silk, filament
FRAME: 1. A general term for many machines used in yarn manufacturing such as the drawing
frame, roving frame, and spinning frame. 2. See TENTER FRAME.
FRAMEWORK KNITTING: See KNITTING, Weft Knitting.
FRAYING: The slipping or raveling of yarns from unfinished edges of cloth.
FREE-WHEELING: In reference to rolls, spinning without the application of either driving or
FRENCHBACK: A fabric with a corded twill backing of different weave than the face. The
backing, which is frequently of inferior yarn, gives added weight, warmth, and stability to the
FREQUENCY: In uniform circular motion or in any periodic motion, the number of revolutions
or cycles completed in unit time.
FRICTION FALSE-TWIST TEXTURING: See TEXTURING, False-Twist Method.
FRICTION SPINNING: A spinning system in which
the yarn receives its twist by being rolled along the
longitudinal axis in the nip between two revolving
surfaces. The surfaces may rotate at the same or
different speeds in the same or opposite directions
depending on the particular machine design. Potential
advantages include high production capacity, low stress
on the fiber in processing, and the capacity to produce
FRIEZÉ: 1. A term applied when the pile of a velvet, plush, velour, or other pile fabric is uncut.
A friezé fabric is sometimes patterned by shearing the loops at different lengths. Friezé fabrics
are widely used for upholstery. 2. A cut-pile carpet made of highly twisted yarns normally plied
and heat-set. A kinked or curled yarn effect is achieved. Excellent durability results from the
FROSTING: See COLOR ABRASION.
FROST MARKS: A defect of woven fabric consisting of surface highlights that give a frosted
appearance. Frost marks are caused by improper sizing or insufficient warp tension as a result of
uneven bending of some warp ends over the picks.
FULL-FASHIONED: A term applied to fabrics produced on a flat-knitting machine, such as
hosiery, sweater, and underwear, that hav
e been shaped by adding or reducing stitches.
FULLING: A finishing process used in the manufacture of
woolen and worsted fabrics. The cloth is subjected to
moisture, heat friction, chemicals, and pressure which cause it
to mat and shrink appreciably in both the warp and filling
directions, resulting in a denser, more compact fabric.
FUME FADING: See GAS FADING.
FUSED ACETATE: 1. A hard particle of acetate material of
almost any shape or size other than recognizable fiber.
Sometimes fused acetate particles resemble rock-like,
hardened drops of acetate dope; in other cases fused acetate consists of particles covered with
fiber clusters and completely hardened in the center. 2. Acetate yarns in which the individual
FUSED FILAMENTS: A group of filaments bonded together in a tow by drips or frictional
effects and thereby resistant to filament separation and crimp deregistering.
FUSED RIBBON: Acetate fabrics in wide widths may be cut into narrow ones by the application
of heat. A hot knife blade caused the edges to sear and bead, thereby doing away with selvages
on the edges of the goods.
FUSING: 1. Melting. 2. Uniting, as by melting together.
FUZZ BALL: See BALLING UP.
FUZZINESS: 1. A term describing a woven fabric defect characterized by a hairy appearance
due to broken fibers or filaments. Principle causes are underslashed warp; rough drop wires,
heddles, or reed; fabric slippage on take-up drum; rough shuttles; cut glass, dents, or reeds in
warper; and damage in slashing. 2. A term describing a fabric intentionally made with a hairy
surface; such fabrics are usually produced from spun yarns.
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